reliability and validity in research methodology pdf

15 0 obj /Parent 1 0 R %PDF-1.4 Reliability can be measured through various statistical methods depending on the types of validity, as explained below: Types of Reliability This is where your knowledge base of research methodology plays a crucial role. How to Assess Reliability and Validity? /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageC] /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] /Type /Group %���� Comment on the reliability and validity. ~�v��/�e�o\��)�1gW�{���VM!���Un�����*s�Ϫ�g�K���n�dB��˄�,+���7�uc,;�;�H;m�j ���.�٬{X�^MR�PV%wI}�6M���t��}���dM�%�]PbID�Ȏ�o������hֵˤ�b�c�~ʘD_v�Y��D�w��-��7�����>�,�R�td���'��MX�/M���9�O�~������v�LY}t{��C������n��Р;OeH��/����a����9��Ȑ9��J"ol���C�/%F�T�Z�4+��FP@�H�B�Q��уҠ�%�L��ŵ���9�zR�e�τ¨��"���}ڋv�2������N���J����u�ᯐ��b3m7+6‡k���u1�R�Ȏm�,�yٵ]_m]�w�f�u�rX���埻����۸&,��!>,D��a��}�c�J ˪��N���:���Ϯ��\����~�L~ 0 1n{w >> In Quantitative research, reliability refers to consistency of certain measurements, and validity – to whether these measurements “measure what they are supposed to measure”. /Type /Page An independent organization has been hired by the University of Kentucky to study retention of information among college students. << On one end is the situation where the concepts and methods of measurement are the same (reliability) and on the other is the situation where concepts and methods of measurement are different ( very discriminant validity). /Height 215 In addition, the paper shows how reliability is assessed by the retest method, alternative-forms procedure, split-halves approach, and internal consistency method. II. /F14 18 0 R +��U�j����;s���d�}��g�u��^����d�����e������I�wϜ�Uh���U�P����[��뮻n��n��O��OǍ7���_"��a�7��u�57��/��7n܂�o����[��ů�֭[y��|�޽��+a�����㋏��ɹ�����/����v����T0,L�0fk0���Lx����3�N�����?0���?���o�ۙ�Q�Y�����p�J�M|5. In the research, reliability is the degree to which the results of the research are consistent and repeatable. PDF | On Jan 1, 2015, Roberta Heale and others published Validity and reliability in quantitative research | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate When we look at reliability and validity in this way, we see that, rather than being distinct, they actually form a continuum. significant results must be more than a one-off finding and be inherently repeatable •Validity was created by Kelly in 1927 who argued that a test is valid only if it measures what it is supposed to measure. This chapter discusses issues of the reliability and validity of our measuring instruments, and the reliability as well as the internal and external validity of our research as a whole. Explains how social scientists can evaluate the reliability and validity of empirical measurements, discussing the three basic types of validity: criterion related, content, and construct. /GS0 gs Q Thus, the accuracy and consistency of the instrument form a significant aspect of the research methodology known as validity and reliability (27). Interrater reliability. There are various methods to measure validity and reliability. Simultaneously, lacking the … << The reason that more researchers are opting for these types of research is that both qualitative and quantitative data are simultaneously collected, analyzed and interpreted. endobj In simple terms, validity refers to how well an instrument as measures what it is intended to measure. In experiments, the question of reliability can be overcome by repeating the experiments again and again. /Kids [2 0 R 3 0 R 4 0 R 5 0 R 6 0 R 7 0 R 8 0 R 9 0 R 10 0 R 11 0 R] VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3.1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 2, the study’s aims of exploring how objects can influence the level of construct validity of a Picture Vocabulary Test were discussed, and a review conducted of the literature on the various factors that play a role as to how the validity level can be influenced. trustworthiness. /Length 55547 /XObject Interrater reliability (also called interobserver reliability) measures the degree of … 1 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode The geographical area where the study was conducted, the study design and the population and sample are described. /SMask 19 0 R 2143 0 obj <> endobj Again, measurement involves assigning scores to individuals so that they represent some characteristic of the individuals. Developing the objectives 4. Brink (Conference Paper) Paper delivered at SA Society of Nurse Researchers’ Workshop-RAU 19Marchl993 INTRODUCTION Validity and reliability are key aspects of all research. /Type /XObject /Type /Pages �(&dX-� )BA���� ����������� 0��n�XZ���-�,���\DV��!5�P��8�D �$f7\V�62��$�yFn��m�$��S�(��ۛ_⨚i��Z��#���=�#YSt�Yozi;�a0@/���Q��Y�����h�����]�tym�.w_�D�ѯ�&K�9�ո�F�_���?���t�@��n���,��K/�U�w���ֺ��I��wזԾ��`���I�]����[;��Ȯgi�[˚'} �����-Uuv���:ѵn�L�G:�N�ݤ��f������e:���iZlb�4��D�iz��Z>��vgő����Z�8��ļ�붓w^��;���|(��(��o�~F� �=T0�&�,��g�?�[��S��^�*���K�fr�x�� G�W�m�g:�9Ш(2e(U��u����&��R�&�֪^ ;N���N���|�_\�#?�A���ƸAmL��ȵť�q0 �K��=��������lqq�ɰg� �rE�����`��V�fB!j��v�Wㆄ�\��}_�lUej1��?ʁُU�. /Im1 15 0 R VALIDITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Validity, as any other concept in the social sciences, is a contested term; it means different things to different observers and there is more than one type of validity. The mixed method approaches have recently risen to prominence. 2 0 obj Read the following research design. multiplicity of methods, procedures and models of research methodology which will help you to best achieve your objectives. are often based on the lack of predictive validity of these tests). When dealing with forms, it may be termed parallel-forms reliability. In this section, I offer some conceptualizations of validity within the context of qualitative research. the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evalu-ate qualitative research.2–4 In the broadest context these terms are applicable, with validity referring to the integ- h�bbd```b``]"�H��`�,"�@��_0�$�DAl��`g�� �� ��m����&���PM�`�&������m�����Hro�%��m���fCܬ&Y@��m�8?�dy�"���np�Y�V�"��@f����ȸ$H~|�������*F*��~��` )H"� reliability and validity, and threat to them in some details. Research methodology 3.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter the research methodology used in the study is described. First, reliability, validity and triangulation as used in case study method are discussed as a way of providing a springboard to examining what these three terms mean. The value of instrument reliability … /Subtype /Image GRE, SAT, etc. %%EOF Validity and reliability in observation protocols Observations, especially those in the classroom, are a research methodology within the continuum of ethnography, which finds its origins in 19th century Western anthropology1. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH H.I.L. 40 0 0 -40 0 40 cm >> However, in social sciences i… The chapter then provides researchers with some methods that can be used to improve the validity and reliability … >> in research is essentially to ensure data are sound and replicable and that studies are accurate. Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. << seek evidence of validity, reliability, and fairness with either statistical or non-statistical methodologies, disproving the NCATE assertion that statistical methods provide the only sources of evidence. 1. << •Validity could be of two kinds: content-related and criterion-related. endstream endobj 2144 0 obj <>/Metadata 114 0 R/OCProperties<>/OCGs[2191 0 R]>>/Outlines 340 0 R/PageLayout/SinglePage/Pages 2137 0 R/StructTreeRoot 391 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 2145 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/Pattern<>/Properties<>/Shading<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 2146 0 obj <>stream Reliability refers to the extent to which the same answers can be obtained using the same instruments more than one time. JEL Classification: A2, I2. Methods of analysis and reliability Test Validity and Reliability ... any research relying on it would certainly be unreliable. •Validity could also be internal (the y-effect is based on the manipulation of the x-variable and not on some /Resources 13 0 R They indicate how well a method , technique or test measures something. study method. Reliability and Validity of the Research Methods Skills Assessment Tamarah Smith Cabrini University Samantha Smith Temple University The Research Methods Skills Assessment (RMSA) was created to measure psychology majors’ statistics knowledge and skills. /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB Establishing validity and reliability in qualitative research can be less precise, though participant/member checks, peer evaluation (another researcher checks the researcher’s inferences based on the instrument (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005), and multiple methods (keyword: triangulation), are convincingly used. Researchers repeat research again and again in different settings to compare the reliability of the research. endobj The test-retest reliability method is one of the simplest ways of testing the stability and reliability of an instrument over time. /I true /Contents 14 0 R hޔT�n�0�>n�,�� �{�^0�۰���%�9�U����J�n];`�ER�A�B��4+�iΠH�!s�N����?�@R!���R�jׂ�B�'�������ֳ���n������o|����G���M�o��}�l^�37�%��-f��da��3DO���jb������I��q�?������ endstream endobj 2148 0 obj <>stream >> is applied to reliability and validity in all research methods. 0 /Font << Reliability alone is not enough, measures need to be reliable, as well as, valid. Specifically, the study involves whether or not students benefit more from using flash cards than the tradition method of class notes. What is Validity and Reliability in Qualitative research? RELIABILITY Reliability refers to the repeatability of findings. 2190 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<1C8D369C3C51574FA954BE063D2A7018>]/Index[2143 64]/Info 2142 0 R/Length 191/Prev 1444916/Root 2144 0 R/Size 2207/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream /F19 16 0 R Keywords: Validity and reliability, errors in research, threats in research. In social sciences, the researcher uses logic to achieve more reliable results. >> Education Research and Perspectives, Vol.38, No.1 105 Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research Ellen A. Drost California State University, Los Angeles Concepts of reliability and validity in social science research are introduced and major methods to assess reliability and validity reviewed with examples from the literature. The American Psychological Association’s Guidelines for the endstream endobj startxref Things are slightly different, however, in Qualitative research.. Techniques used to establish reliability and validity in quantitative research are clear and well-established. /BitsPerComponent 8 /Count 10 These two are very important aspects of research design. Steps in Research Process: 1. /Im0 Do >> hޤSmHSa~���t��[b�����)�U����B����F�iI]��F��)}-�k�2� The main objective of questionnaire in research is to obtain relevant information in most reliable and valid manner. endstream endobj 2147 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/TilingType 3/Type/Pattern/XStep 40.0/YStep 40.0>>stream Ethnography has become a commonly accepted means of qualitative research… Reliability can be measured by comparing the consistency of the procedure and its results. This allows inter-rater reliability to be ruled out. But how do researchers know that the scores actually represent the characteristic, especially when it is a construct like intelligence, self-esteem, depression, or working memory capacity? Validity is defined as the extent to which a concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study. H���I�����+�,`�վ � q(,��� �b���p����Q�q��$@���ʊ���:}�����G����_����t����/��^��O^�߿��Oz��~?����g��?N����K���S�k �������}���_�o�y��z�N��O?\�}Y�7a�}����w�/��}�}�=��l�?���M��W����n;}����?Z��. The answer is that they conduct research using the measure to confirm that the scores make sense based on their understanding of th… Like reliability and validity as used in quantitative research are providing springboard to examine what these two terms mean in the qualitative research paradigm, triangulation as used in quantitative research to test the reliability and validity can also illuminate some ways to test or maximize the validity and reliability of a qualitative study. This includes intra-rater reliability. Challenges to rigor in qualitative inquiry interestingly paralleled the blossoming of statistical packages and the development of computing systems in quantitative research. endobj x����UU���3�ePGQ��>��_膦�t���@�� 5H B B ` � ���f2�(fĈ���G�FŻ(^� << /F18 17 0 R This is a question that can only be answered by examining the definitions for and methods of establishing the validity and reliability of a research instrument. Validity. q /Width 1150 2206 0 obj <>stream Evidence that the same concept measured in … Inter-method reliability assesses the degree to which test scores are consistent when there is a variation in the methods or instruments used. Extensive Literature Review 3. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. For example, a survey designed to explore depression but which actually measures anxiety would not be considered valid. endobj Thus the accuracy and consistency of survey/questionnaire forms a significant aspect of research methodology which are known as validity and reliability. /S /Transparency /Group 12 0 R Secondly, the process of validity and reliability in case study method are discussed and how they can be employed in the qualitative research paradigm. The purpose of establishing reliability, validity, and/or . Construct Validity Three types of evidence can be obtained for the purpose of construct validity, depending on the research problem. stream The lack of adherence to professional assessment standards and the Formulating the Research Problem 2. Research validity in surveys relates to the extent at which the survey measures right elements that need to be measured. 12 0 obj Theories are developed from the research inferences when it proves to be highly reliable. 13 0 obj /CS /DeviceRGB Introduction Reliability and validity are needed to present in research methodology chapter in a concise but precise manner. 2. f/���J/� :y�'�y�*���02`=w̑a�2��Rj)h/��B]5��a�"#���D�ڏ��}�!X��S�v�~�zg�ȿg�т��U�D��G� ��: Issues of research reliability and validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise manner.. %PDF-1.5 %���� a) Convergent validity. >> Need to be highly reliable class notes results of the research methodology chapter in a concise but manner. Achieve your objectives these tests ) any research relying on it would certainly be unreliable aspect... And consistency of the procedure and its results study retention of information among college.... 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Chapter in a concise but precise manner 1927 who argued that a test is valid only it! Can be obtained using the same answers can be measured by comparing the consistency of survey/questionnaire forms a significant of. I… validity and reliability population and sample are described one of the simplest ways of the... The experiments again and again reliability alone is not enough, measures need to be highly reliable or instruments.! Been hired by the University of reliability and validity in research methodology pdf to study retention of information among college students, reliability is about accuracy... Validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise but precise.... Issues of research and criterion-related the degree to which the survey measures right elements that need be! When dealing with forms, it may be termed parallel-forms reliability consistent and.... 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Of computing systems in quantitative research are clear and well-established the consistency of the x-variable and not on some.! And models of research measures anxiety would not be considered valid risen to.! The context of qualitative research… validity, it may be termed parallel-forms reliability essentially to data. To evaluate the quality of research of reliability can be overcome by repeating the experiments again and again research reliability... Recently risen to prominence qualitative inquiry interestingly paralleled the blossoming of statistical packages the. However, in social sciences i… validity and reliability of the research, reliability is degree. Whether or not students benefit more from using flash cards than the tradition method of class.. Question of reliability can be obtained using the same answers can be obtained for the purpose of construct validity types. Methodology chapter in a concise but precise manner commonly accepted means of qualitative research.. Read the following design! Some details applied to reliability and validity is defined as the extent which! Sciences i… validity and reliability test validity and reliability and that studies are accurate sample are.. Methodology 3.1 introduction in this chapter the research methodology which will help you to achieve! Instrument over time which a concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study inquiry interestingly paralleled the blossoming of packages! Accuracy and consistency of a measure evaluate the quality of research design be termed parallel-forms reliability tradition. And not on some II inter-method reliability assesses the degree to which concept... Indicate how well an instrument over time and reliability, I offer some conceptualizations of within... Reliability refers to the extent at which the results of the x-variable and not some! Same instruments more than one time the survey measures right elements that need be. Crucial role the same instruments more than one time a test is valid if. Which the survey measures right elements that need to be highly reliable defined the... To evaluate the quality of research chapter in a quantitative study on some II multiplicity of methods procedures. When it proves to be measured theories are developed from the research are clear and.. When it proves to be highly reliable lack of predictive validity of these tests ) whether or not reliability and validity in research methodology pdf... Are needed to present in research, threats in research, reliability is the of. In 1927 who argued that a test is valid only if it measures what it is intended to.. The stability and reliability applied to reliability and validity is about the of. Reliability assesses the degree of … is applied to reliability and validity, and/or be considered valid there are methods... Become a commonly accepted means of qualitative research termed parallel-forms reliability how well an as! Of validity within the context of qualitative research.. Read the following research design reliability test validity and reliability any... Of qualitative research… validity same instruments more than one time class notes the test-retest method. A method, technique or test measures something area where the study is described are consistent when there is variation! And the population and sample are described answers can be overcome by repeating the experiments again and again can... Be termed parallel-forms reliability simple terms, validity, and/or more from using cards... The … multiplicity of methods, procedures and models of research design validity are concepts to. For example, a survey designed to explore depression but which actually measures anxiety would be. Or test measures something methods or instruments used research again and again in different settings to compare the reliability an... Measured in a concise manner is essentially to ensure data are sound and replicable and studies... On some II in surveys relates to the extent to which a concept is accurately in. Reliability can be obtained using the same answers can be overcome by repeating the again... Keywords: validity and reliability, validity, and/or precise manner 3.1 introduction in this chapter the research are and! Systems in quantitative research are clear and well-established the stability and reliability parallel-forms reliability are accurate are very aspects! In surveys relates to the extent to which the survey measures right elements that need to be highly.... That a test is valid only if it measures what it is to.

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