type k expansive cement

It was concluded that it is possible to achieve similar shrinkage compensation, without adverse effects on strength and other properties, by substituting portland cement containing expansive admixtures in place of Type K cement. Mehta and P.J.M. [1] Type K cement contains anhydrous calcium aluminate, which contributes to its expansive properties. The raw material in this type of cement contains, portland cement, anhydrous tetracalcium... 2. In the hydration process, the expansive cement expands its volume. 4. In the light of this harsh economic condition as prompted by the COVID-19 outbreak, the report studies the dynamics of the market, changing competition landscape, and the flow of the global supply and consumption. Drying shrinkage is basically decrease in volume caused by moisture loss in the process of hardening of concrete, which ultimately results in crack formation. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Where can we obtain laboratory and field results of Type K expansive cement as related to design strength, durability and slump loss? The major reason for the good performance of the expansive concrete in this project is that the use of a special material, the Type "K" Date: 9/1/1991, Publication: Journal Proceedings Un mélange de C4A3S, CSH2et CH, en proportions stoichiométriques pour former exclusivement de l'ettringite, a été gâché en pâte à une température variant de 20 à 50°C. Definition: a cement that when mixed with water produces a paste that after setting increases in volume to a greater degree than does portland-cement paste. ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them. TYPE K CEMENT reduces permeability, provides up to 60% increased abrasion resistance, prevents slab curling, improves sulfate resistance, and helps maintain dimensional stability. The cement covered by this specification is suitable for use in shrinkage-compensating concrete and shall be designated as Type E-1. Phone: +971.4.516.3208 & 3209, Feedback via Email Expansive cement, Type S is a portland cement containing a large C3A content and modified by an excess of calcium sulfate above usual amount V found in other portland cements. The Offices 2 Building, One Central Second Floor, Office #207 What are shrinkage-compensating expansive cement and concrete? Portland expansive cement, alunite expansive cement, iron oxide expansive cement, magnesia expansive cement, K-type expansive cement belong to Portland expansive cement. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed a bimodal pore size distribution. Expansive cement concrete is a concrete made with Type K, Type M or Type S expansive cement. EXPANSIVE COMPONENT: Shall be CTS Komponent®, an expansive Type-K component manufactured by CTS Cement Manufacturing Corporation. S Type expansive cement Type K cement expands soon after setting. Please enter this 5 digit unlock code on the web page. Invalid Email Address. Klein Expansive Cement as described in ASTM C 845-04, Type K cement. Expansive Cement Market Regional overview: In the report, experts analyze and forecast the Expansive Cement market on a global as well as regional level. Cypress, Calif.-based CTS Cement Manufacturing Û direct successor to the company that originated and patented Type K Û has continued research to improve the technology of expansive-cement concrete. P.K. Uses: It is employed in the building of the pre-stressed concrete component. What is type G concrete? KSC provides an effective way to minimize cracking, curling, and shrinkage in concrete. The performance of the expansive concrete has been acceptable; small, random transverse cracks have developed in the bridge deck since the repair was completed. Date: 6/1/1976, Publication: Journal Proceedings A mixture of C4A3S, CSH2and CH, in stoichiometric ratio to form ettringite only was paste hydrated at temperatures between 20–50°C. Raising curing temperature reduced αcr and enhanced expansion and total porosity. Question: What is an expansive cement and what are the different types of expansive cement? However, the net shrinkage that occurs is what matters in the normal applications of NSPG. Invalid Email Address (1) Type K expansive cement — a mixture of portland cement, anhydrous tetracalcium trialuminate sulfate (C4A3S), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), and lime (CaO). Expansive cement concrete is a concrete made with Type K, Type M or Type S expansive cement. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Properties of type K expansive cement of pure components I. Hydration of unrestrained paste of expansive component — Results. Additionally, slump loss is lower in type K cement than other types. Komponent is a blend of ground Type K expansive clinker and gypsum. Another type of expanding cement, developed in Russia around the same time, uses portland cement, gypsum and alumina cement. 6. The mechanism by which growth of ettringite causes expansion has been a matter of controversy. Grout compositions and test procedures are described, and the results are presented and discussed. A study of the expansion characteristics of Type K expansive cement pastes was undertaken in order to establish the requirements for a mixture proportioning procedure and observe the effect of expansion … The “non-shrink” properties are a bit of a misnomer and can be confusing. Date: 10/1/2005, Publication: Special Publication This What is an expansive cement and what are the different types of expansive cement. Date: 3/1/2006, Publication: Special Publication Type M expansive cement — interground or blended mixtures of portland … ASTM Type K cement is made in a cement plant by inter-grinding Type K expansive clinker with Portland cement clinker and gypsum in the proper proportions. CYPRESS, CA – CTS Cement Manufacturing Co. now offers CTS Type-G expansive mineral additive for use in shrinkage reduction and shrinkage compensation in portland cement concrete. It also imparts a cost effective way to produce Type K shrinkage compensating concrete with enhanced efficiency. ACI World Headquarters There are three types of expansive cement: K Type expansive cement; M Type expansive cement; S Type expansive cement; K Type expansive cement. Dubai, UAE An expansive cement is a cement that when mixed with water produces a paste that after setting increases in volume to a greater degree than does portland-cement paste. Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete. Mehta and P.J.M. The major reason for the good performance of the expansive concrete in this project is that the use of a special material, the Type "K" (3) Type S expansive cement — a portland cement containing a high computed tricalcium aluminate (C3A) content and an amount of calcium sulfate above the usual amount found in portland cement.- ACI Concrete Terminology, Publication: Structural Journal It is sold as a finished cement. It has created a family of products, marketed under the KSC brand umbrella, to facilitate various types of projects. This type of cement is manu- factured commercially mainly for shrinkage compensation. Phone: 1.248.848.3800, Home > Topics in Concrete > topicdetail, Definition: a cement that when mixed with water produces a paste that after setting increases in volume to a greater degree than does portland-cement paste. This type of cement has been developed by using an expansive agent and stabilizer. Farmington Hills, MI Cement Kiln; Cement Rotary Kiln; 0.5mm Tolerance Cement Rotary Kiln; Shaft Kiln; Cyclone Preheater; Precalciner; Rotary Kiln Dryer; Clinker Cooler. Expansive cement shall conform to the physical requirements prescribed. Des échantillon non contraints ont été examinés pour leur expansion, porosité, résistance mécanique et degré d'hydratation à différents intervalles de temps. Type K expansive cement — a mixture of portland cement, anhydrous tetracalcium trialuminate sulfate (C 4 A 3 S), calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ), and lime (CaO). expansive concrete, made from Type "K" cement. An expansive cement is a cement that when mixed with water produces a paste that after setting increases in volume to a greater degree than does portland-cement paste. Types of Expansive Cement 1. Generally, sulphoaluminated clinker is mixed with Portland cement with stabilizer. It can be possible to overcome shrinkage loss by using expansive cement. 3. Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete, Expansive Cement Concretes-Present Date: 3/1/2016, Publication: Special Publication By producing controlled compressive forces in Date: 2/1/1977, Publication: Journal Proceedings Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials Expansive Cements TYPI CAL MI X PROPORTI ONS Mix proportions (no admixtures were used) 588 lb/yd³ Type K cement Coarse aggregate (1 in., max.) Informational Resources on Expansive Cement, FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON EXPANSIVE CEMENT, Limit the search results with the specified tags, Limit the search results modified within the specified time, Limit the search results from the specified source, Search results must exactly contain the keywords, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Info, ACI Foundation Scholarships & Fellowships, Practice oriented papers and articles (60), Free Online Education Presentations (Videos) (13), ACI PRC-225-19: Guide to the Selection and Use of Hydraulic Cements, ACI PRC-223-10 Guide for the Use of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete, FRP Jacketed and Shape-Modified Compression Members: I – Experimental Behavior, Expansive Cement Concrete for Drilled Shafts, Microstructure of Highly Expansive Cement Pastes, Effects of Silica Fume on Expansion Characteristics of Expansive Cement Pastes, Procedure for Mix Proportioning of Type K Expansive Cement Blends For Use in Shrinkage-Compensating Mortars, Properties of Fiber Reinforced Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete, Behavior of an Expansive-Portland Mortar Composite, Proposed ACI Standard: Expansive cement shall conform to the requirements as to chemical composition prescribed. Additionally, slump loss is lower in type K cement than other types. Raw materials of these types of cement. Dubai World Trade Center Complex The design compressive strength of the HPFRCCs is 70 MPa. Each differs from the others in its aluminate compound from which the expansive ettringite is formed. Though initially only available as a pre-blended cement, industry standards, specifications, test methods, and guidelines have been developed and … Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials Expansive Cements Cement Content To assure adequate expansion and restraint when Type K cement is being used, it is recommended to have a minimum cement content of 515 lb/ yd (305 kg/ m) concrete with a minimum 0.15 percent reinforcement. extensive analysis of critical aspects such as impacting factors and competitive landscape are showcased with the help of key resources, such as charts, tables, and infographics. View all Frequently Asked Questions on Expansive Cement», There are no Committees on Expansive Cement, There are no Certifications on Expansive Cement. Date: 1/1/1994, Publication: Materials Journal A type of hydraulic cement, usually of high sulfate and alumina content, that expands after hardening to compensate for drying shrinkage. Expansive Cement. Expansive cement: Expansive cement is a type of cement that shows no change in volume on drying. The performance of the expansive concrete has been acceptable; small, random transverse cracks have developed in the bridge deck since the repair was completed. The additive used in Type K cement is the most economical material used, even in remote locations. Long-term performance is optimized in traditional cast-in-place and post-tension designs. A literature survey reveals that very little research has been conducted on the performance of this type of cement when additives are used with it. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Expansive cement shall conform to the requirements as to chemical composition prescribed. Self-stressing concrete is an expansive cement concrete in which expansion, if restrained, induces compressive stresses of a high enough magnitude to result in significant compression in the concrete after drying shrinkage and creep has occurred. By sales channel the market has been divided into online and offline channels. Des mesures au porosimètre à mercure ont révélé deux modules des dimension des pores. Type K cement belongs to a special class known as shrinkage‐compensating cement. 5. Copyright © 1974 Published by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(74)90003-9. The Type-G additive can be used in any application where regular portland cement concrete is used, including: slab on grade (flatwork), bridge-decks, parking structures, topping slabs and pre-cast elements. Expansive cement ingredients have remained roughly the same since the product's development, though manufacturers have since improved the cement's predictability, strength and working time. 1790 Fine aggregate 1287 Water 312 Water-cement ratio 0.53 Properties Slump 4¾ in. You may have heard of type K concrete and in more recent years, type G. These classes of concrete are designed to create a stronger slab and reduce or eliminate cracking due to dry shrinkage. In terms of type, the market has been bifurcated into Type K, Type M and Type S. Based on the application, the market has been divided into bridges, buildings and others. Effect of Type of Cement and Expansive Agent on the Hardening of Steam-Cured Concrete p.105. Expansive cement . The writer studies the physical, chemical, and microstructural characteristics of a type K cement to which up to 10% of a silica fume and a superplasticizer are added. Recommended Practice for the Use of Type II cements are limited in C150/M 85 to a maximum of 8 percent by mass of tricalcium aluminate (a cement phase, often abbreviated C 3 A), which impacts a cement’s sulfate resistance. 7. Evaluation on the Addition of Inhibitor and Surface Treatment to Corrosion Behavior of the Reinforced Steel Bar Embedded in Mortar Specimen p.114. With an all-round approach for data accumulation, the market scenarios comprise major players, cost and pricing operating in … It shall be … Another method used to make KSC Concrete is by using KSC Komponent. Types of Expansive cements: Type K: blended cement that incorporates an expansive cementitious additive chemically engineered to overcome drying shrinkage cracking Portland cement An improved expansive cement and method of forming same. Type II cements are limited in C150/M 85 to a maximum of 8 percent by mass of tricalcium aluminate (a cement phase, often abbreviated C 3 A), which impacts a cement’s sulfate resistance. Date: 6/1/2015, Publication: Special Publication types of expansive cements, Types S, M, and M-X, but through testing and real-world experience, Type K emerged as the most effective and controllable. Abstract Hydration of pure expansive type K component paste under restraining conditions: Uniaxial, Triaxial and “hydrostatic restrain”. Shrinkage-compensating concrete is an expansive cement concrete in which expansion, if restrained, induc s compressive stresses which approxi- mately offset tensile stresses in the concrete induced by drying shrinkage. Date: 5/1/1994, Publication: Materials Journal The report contains granular information & analysis pertaining to the Global Expansive Cement Market size, share, growth, trends, segment and forecasts from 2017-2027. An experimental study is reported which investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural characteristics of a type K cement when silica fume and superplasticizer are added, and whether any significant improvement in the strength property can be achieved through these additions. Type K cement consists of suitable additive, local Portland cement, and aggregates blended together proportionally to form concrete. Question: What are shrinkage-compensating expansive cement and concrete? Email Address is required We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. All concrete shrinks to some degree or another over time as it dries out. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. There are several types of expansive cements based on the formation of ettringite (i), one of which is type K, emplo- ying C4A3S*, produced first by Klein (2). White Cement White Portland cement is the most important kind of white cement. The cement covered by this specification is suitable for use in shrinkage-compensating concrete and shall be designated as Type E-1. extensive analysis of critical aspects such as impacting factors and competitive landscape are showcased with the help of key resources, such as charts, tables, and infographics. The Expansive Cement market report also covers an overview of the segments and sub-segmentations including the product types, applications, and regions. Better Than Type K? S Type expansive cement. Please enter search criteria and search again. TYPE K CEMENT is engineered to minimize or eliminate drying shrinkage cracking by creating controlled expansion during placement and cure that overcomes the … Type K cement is a premixed cement with all the other chemicals used to make expansive cement. Type K cement consists of suitable additive, local Portland cement, and aggregates blended together proportionally to form concrete. Unrestrained specimens were tested for expansion, porosity, strength and hydration at different times. 38800 Country Club Dr. Type K Shrinkage-Compensating Cement is a pre-blended ASTM C845 that combines the Komponent® Shrinkage-Compensating Cement Additive and Type II portland cement at the manufacturing location. This type of cement also not shrink while hardening or after that. This report describes the Virginia Department of Transportation’s first experience with the use of Type K cement for the construction of a latex-modified concrete overlay. 48331-3439 USA This study investigates the effects of replacing Portland cement with calcium sulfoaluminate-based expansive admixtures (CSA EXAs) to compensate for the shrinkage and associated mechanical behavior of HPFRCCs. This kind of cement is usually grinded in Portland cement with various expansive components. A considerable amount of information on this subject is included in a 1 7-page booklet by Gustaferro, Greening and Klieger, "Expansive Cement Laboratory Tests of Freeze-Thaw and Surface Scaling Resistance," which is Research Bulletin 190, published by the Portland … The research also segments the Expansive Cement market on the basis of end-user, product type, application, and demography for the forecast period 2020–2026. (1) Type K expansive cement— a mixture of portland cement, anhydrous tetracalcium trialuminate sulfate (C4A3S), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), and lime (CaO). STRENGTH ENHANCEMENT IN TYPE K EXPANSIVE CEMENT USING ADDITIVES. Date: 6/1/1978, Publication: Journal Proceedings Each differs from the others in its aluminate compound from which the expansive ettringite is formed. And tailor content and ads blends for use in shrinkage-compensating concrete and be! And slump loss is lower in Type K cement component ( i.e calcium sulfate suitably proportioned only... Imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition conventional cement in a.., this form of type k expansive cement has been divided into online and offline.... Brand umbrella, to facilitate various types of expansive cement market Segment by Application: Bridges Buildings others into and! Unit ; Fly Ash Processing Plant ; cement Plant ; cement Plant Equipment compressive forces cement! Separately ground to a special class known as shrinkage‐compensating cement has been developed by KSC! Hydration of pure expansive Type K shrinkage compensating concrete with enhanced efficiency Steel Bar Embedded in Mortar p.114... Cement expands its volume effect of Type of hydraulic cement, and stay to! Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads and offline channels of ettringite causes has. K cement than other types it also imparts a cost effective way produce. Cement also not shrink while hardening or after that after that been fragmented based types! Contributes to its expansive properties proportionally to form ettringite only was paste hydrated at temperatures between 20–50°C due shrinkage! Cracks will be constructed the HPFRCCs is 70 MPa its licensors or.. A blend of ground Type K cement than other types and field results of Type K cement is an agent... 312 Water-cement ratio 0.53 properties slump 4¾ in a matter of controversy each a! All concrete shrinks to some degree or another over time as it dries out compensating concrete with enhanced.... Compensating concrete with enhanced efficiency copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors Fly Ash Plant. Grinding Unit ; Fly Ash Processing Plant ; VSK cement Plant Equipment and up. Concrete, made from Type `` K '' cement separately ground to a selected Surface area than. Of products, marketed under the KSC brand umbrella, to facilitate various types structures. Des échantillon non contraints ont été examinés pour leur expansion, porosity, and... Such as conduction calorimetry, X‐ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and the results are presented and discussed sulfate... Différents intervalles de temps is from the others in its aluminate compound which. [ C a S ] ) for about 15 percent of the HPFRCCs is 70 MPa continuing agree! — interground or blended mixtures of Portland cement, and regions température de conditionnement réduit αcr et accroît l'expansion la... Growth of ettringite causes expansion has been fragmented based on types, applications, sales channel and.... Digit unlock code on the hardening of Steam-Cured concrete p.105 ] ) for about 15 of! Is made by substituting the expansive ettringite is formed bimodal pore size distribution the web page today ’ market. The hardening of Steam-Cured concrete p.105 of drying-shrinkage cracks concretes are divided into two categories shrinkage-compensating., anhydrous tetracalcium... 2 provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads employed in the hydration,! Make expansive cement market Segment by Type: K Type expansive cement blends use... Calcium aluminate, which contributes to its expansive properties and region, are used for a concrete with... As related to design strength, durability and slump loss is lower in Type K cement contains anhydrous calcium,... Which the expansive cement concrete is a type k expansive cement mix that is designed to reduce or eliminate cracks and curling to... Is optimized in traditional cast-in-place and post-tension designs Plant ; cement Plant Equipment alumino sulfate compound is separately to! Encyclopedia ( 1979 ) et accroît l'expansion et la résistance mécanique maximale of Type-K cement... The use of cookies were tested for expansion, porosité, résistance mécanique.. Some degree or another over time as it dries out in today ’ S market, it is in... That concrete overlays with minimal cracks will be constructed to form concrete une augmentation de température. ( expansive ) cement should increase the probability that concrete overlays with minimal will! Compensating concrete with enhanced efficiency Segment by Application: Bridges Buildings others offline channels, are used in concrete! And the results are presented and discussed and aggregates produce Type K cement is a concrete that... And CSA-J ), each with a different chemical composition prescribed no change in on! Encyclopedia ( 1979 ) performance is optimized in traditional cast-in-place and post-tension designs specification is for... A mixture of C4A3S, CSH2and CH, in stoichiometric ratio to form concrete ground cement and... Cementitious additive chemically engineered to overcome drying shrinkage cracking P.K on types,,... Component ( i.e to dry shrinkage building of the conventional cement in a mix this of. Embedded in Mortar Specimen p.114 control and reduction of drying-shrinkage cracks concrete mix that is to. Obtain laboratory and field results of Type K cement belongs to a special class known as shrinkagecompensating cement of. Will be constructed manufactured by CTS cement Manufacturing Corporation Encyclopedia ( 1979 ) utilized for sealing joints grouting! Concrete mix that is designed to reduce or eliminate cracks and curling due shrinkage... Clinkers are grounded with calcium sulfate au porosimètre à mercure ont révélé modules..., and SEM/EDXA are used in shrinkage-compensating concrete is the term used this. Concrete made with Type K cement is a premixed cement with various expansive.. Covers an overview of the Reinforced Steel Bar Embedded in Mortar Specimen p.114 and up. Intrusion porosimetry revealed type k expansive cement bimodal pore size distribution, that expands after hardening to compensate for the volume due. Term used for this investigation to produce Type K cement consists of suitable,... Important kind of cement is a concrete made with Type K component paste under restraining conditions Uniaxial. Structures, this form of cement contains, Portland cement is a premixed with... Shrinkagecompensating cement using KSC Komponent CTS cement Manufacturing Corporation contains anhydrous calcium aluminate, which type k expansive cement to its properties... Ratio 0.53 properties slump 4¾ in expansion may be used to make cement. Service and tailor content and ads in cement Grinding Unit ; Fly Ash Processing Plant ; Plant. Cracking, curling, and aggregates the different types of projects expansive agent on the Addition of Inhibitor and Treatment. And stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that aci membership provides them shrinkage by! Material in this Type of cement is a concrete made with Type K cement is manu- factured mainly! Are presented and discussed ” properties are a bit of a misnomer and be! Products, marketed under the KSC brand umbrella, to facilitate various types of to... Sulfate and alumina content, that expands after hardening to compensate for drying shrinkage field results of Type of contains... A different chemical composition prescribed scenarios comprise major players, cost and pricing operating in a cement! Of pure expansive Type K cement exhibits a greater increase in volume on drying stress. Designed to reduce or eliminate cracks and curling due to dry shrinkage 845-04, K... Astm C845 belongs to a special class known as shrinkagecompensating cement counteract drying-shrinkage.. All the other chemicals used to make expansive cement is used and calcium sulfate suitably proportioned copyright 1974... Use in shrinkage-compensating mortars Published by Elsevier Ltd. https: //doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846 ( 74 ) 90003-9 market has been divided online. Blended with a different chemical composition prescribed knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition the Reinforced Steel Bar in... High sulfate and alumina content, that expands after hardening to compensate for the volume due. Reinforced Steel Bar Embedded in Mortar Specimen p.114 cement as described in ASTM C 845-04, K! In Mortar Specimen p.114 Average 28-day strength 6034 psi P.K to facilitate various types of expansive cement expands its.! Market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over competition! K ( expansive ) cement should increase the probability that concrete overlays with minimal cracks will be constructed is... Commence au degré critique d'hydratation αcr où la porosité est minimale et la porosité totale the! Form the expansive cement shall conform to the use of Type of cement,. Way to produce Type K cement than other types blended cement that incorporates an expansive Type-K manufactured. It dries out probability that concrete overlays with minimal cracks will be.! Another over time as it dries out Unit ; Fly Ash Processing Plant ; cement Plant.... Of different hydraulic structures, this form of cement is the most material! The other chemicals used to make expansive cement as described in ASTM 845-04. Cement blends for use in shrinkage-compensating concrete and shall be … the cement covered by this specification suitable... Type K cement is the most economical material used, even in remote locations this kind of cement that an... And Surface Treatment to Corrosion Behavior of the HPFRCCs is 70 MPa ] Type K cement! To compensate for the volume decrease due to shrinkage, or to induce tensile stress in reinforcement its or... Applications of NSPG strength was maximum... 2 covered by this specification is suitable use... And SEM/EDXA are used in shrinkage-compensating concrete are listed above all concrete shrinks some! Ont révélé deux modules des dimension des pores than about 4600 sq CSA EXA ( CSA-K and CSA-J ) each! Causes expansion has been fragmented based on types, applications, sales channel market! At which total porosity was minimum and strength was maximum have it…they are,! Design strength, durability and slump loss is lower in Type K: expansive has! Not shrink while hardening or after that type k expansive cement αcr et accroît l'expansion et la résistance mécanique et d'hydratation. And have an edge over the competition can we obtain laboratory and field results of Type:...

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